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Studia Humanitatis - электронный научный журнал


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"Studia Humanitatis". No 2, 2018
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press_mamif wrote in st_hum_ru

Publishing Date: 2018-07-20

HISTORY

Vostrikov P.V. Social formation of colonial Virginia (1607-1680s)

In this article the author marks the main stages of the formation of colonial Virginia society. Its social evolution was a painful development. The traditional English social hierarchy, which the leaders of the Virginia Company tried to replicate, failed as Virginia’s demography remained in a deplorable state for decades. Only in the 1680s the white society of Virginia consolidated. Characteristic features of colonial Virginia were plantation slavery, rule of gentry, tobacco as the major staple in the economy and racial solidarity of the white population. The native inhabitants of Virginia had been driven away to the West from their lands and did not make any part of its society.

Pulkin M.V. The phenomenon of the mining settlement (on materials of the Petrovsky Factories)

The article considers the main regularities of the existence of mining settlements as a special kind of settlements. The author revealed that the general characteristic feature of the mining plants was the orientation toward ensuring the state's defence needs. The emergence and peculiarities of the functioning of mining settlements are directly connected with rational decisions of local and central authorities. Priority in the activities of mining plants remained the industrial production, often at the expense of the domestic needs of their inhabitants.

Mamedov Z.I. The USSR industry in the CIA estimates in 1947-1953

In this article the author analyses the archival documents of the CIA on the industry of the USSR. The chronological scope of the work originates from the founding of the Central Intelligence Agency and until the death of Joseph Stalin. The sources of this period make it possible to see which industries were the most interesting for the American intelligence. The conclusions to which the author came allow better understanding of the CIA's view of the US main enemy in the Cold War in its first period.

Ivanov A.M. The movement “For The Smolensk People's Front” during the Perestroika period (1985-1991) in the Smolensk Region

This article describes one of the first informal organizations in the Soviet Union known as “For the Smolensk People's Front”. The organization was founded during the Perestroika period in the territory of Smolensk Oblast. This movement played an important role during the pre-election campaign in local councils of people's deputies of the RSFSR in 1989. Under the initiative of “The Smolensk People's Front” they organized the “Democratic Russia” movement in order to unite all Democrats of Smolensk Oblast into one political bloc, because there was a need to create a real alternative and opposition to the Communist Party. Ultimately this and other groups were not formed enough and numerous and could not claim the leadership role of the governance in the country, but they marked the beginning of multiparty system’s forming in Russia during the Perestroika period.

PEDAGOGY

Gerashchenko N.V. Issues of general pedagogy in Leo Tolstoy's works in the context of the present day

The article deals with the pedagogical ideas of Leo Tolstoy in the context of modern education, reveals their significance for psycho-pedagogical theory and practice. The article focuses on Leo Tolstoy’s criticism of the authoritarian model of the pedagogical process in Russian and foreign schools in the late 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, the dogmatic and formal nature of teaching. The author analyses the view of Leo Tolstoy on the ideas of teaching and education through the prism of the active, anthropological, existential approaches in modern pedagogy. The article notes the innovative character of Tolstoy's understanding and application of visualization in teaching. Tolstoy was an opponent of empirical pedagogy, and connected the visibility with the effective-practical sphere of personality and the development of theoretical thinking in the process of education. Particular attention is paid to the importance of the religious and ethical teaching of an outstanding Russian thinker for problem solving in spiritual and moral education of the younger generation, the assertion of meaningful values in the conditions of the prevailing spiritual crisis, and the domination of rigid pragmatic attitudes.

Gorbunov V.I., Evdokimova O.K. Pedagogical conditions of teaching philological subjects to the bachelors in technical schools

The article considers problems of modern higher technical education, one of which is lack of necessary level in humanitarian training of bachelors of technical directions. On the basis of the study of methodology of learning the humanitarian subjects by this category of students and our experience’s analysis the author formulated pedagogical conditions of philological subjects in the technical faculties of universities: a focus on the progress of independence and creative work; mutual enrichment of focused training and humanitarian knowledge; a reduction in reproductive activity in favour of the search working and enhancing the role of non-verbal ways of presentation of educational information; a presentation of educational material in view of rational thinking of students of technical orientation; keeping the activity of a student in the zone of the near-term progress.

Gerashchenko A I., Gerashchenko I.G. Problems of the logistic preparation of future lawyers

The article deals with topical problems of logical training of lawyers related to the modernization of higher education in Russia. It shows the negative consequences of eliminating the course of logic from basic training in the field of law. The authors analyse different types of logic, both in the historical aspect and in the context of the fundamental education of lawyers. The authors substantiate the idea that one should not limit oneself to teaching mathematical logic alone, since this method contradicts the principle of pluralism and leads to reductionism in the formation of the logical culture of future lawyers. The pursuit of a single "scientific" kind of logic prevents the genuine fundamental education of lawyers.

Aldakimova O.V., Gerlach I.V., Shkuropiy K.V. Mechanisms of social partnership management in correctional education

The article presents the results of experimental and analytical project activity on the organization and inclusion of higher, secondary professional and correctional education, socially oriented non-profit organizations and charitable organizations in the social partnership. The authors reveal and characterise the principles of managing the social partnership, and also establish the leading directions and conditions of interaction. Volunteering of students of a teacher training university is analysed as the mechanism of management of social partnership. It shows the pedagogical effect of social partnership for the qualitative socialization of students in correctional educational structures (remedial schools) and the improvement of the trajectory of professional growth for volunteers (future teachers).

Vasilkova N.V. Quality management and conception of excellence in higher education system

The paper highlights the complexity and interdependencies of the conception of quality management and the conception of excellence in higher education system. The author analyses different points of view on their structure. The paper is primarily focuses on peculiarities of these conceptions in educational services context. It also investigates the conditions that contribute to the adaptation and development of these conceptions in the educational context.

POLITOLOGY

Tereshchuk M.I. Features of national branding policy in Czech Republic

The article discusses factors that affect the branding policy of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, identifies the key tasks in national branding technologies usage by these countries. The main attention is paid to the experience of Czech Republic in this field. Among other things the author considers institutional and programme dimensions of national branding policy, analyses political factors that influenced its formation, and also determines successful and unsuccessful experience of the countries.

Tomilov I.S. Characteristics of the elections to the State Duma of the Russian Federation in 2003-2011

The first decade of the 21st century became the time of formation of the existing political Pantheon and the formation of a number of key “party players”. The elections of 2003-2011 were the refinement of political technologies and techniques used in today's practice. It was then formed the now-functioning political-parliamentary system with all its attributes. The article analyses the results of the elections of deputies of the State Duma of IV-VI convocations: the typed voices, the allocation of seats, the change of electoral legislation, etc. The study showed that during the specified period Russia has formed a political system with a dominant party whose members can make any decisions in the State Duma without consulting the other parties. At the same time the political system eliminated “unnecessary” political groups until there was a sufficient quantity for its stability within the proclaimed principle of a multiparty system.

Ratnikov M.I. Pre-election strategies of American politicians on the example of the senate elections in New Hampshire in 2014

The aim of this article is to reveal new trends in the pre-election strategies of American politicians related to changes in American society at the beginning of the 21st century. The article examines the election strategies of two real candidates for US Senators from the State of New Hampshire. The author analyses the factors that led to the victory of the democratic candidate. Special attention is paid to the place and role of advertising in the construction of the election campaigns in the United States.

Sazonova O.A., Sazonova N.V. Migration policy: administrative and legal aspects

The article considers the features of migration policy of the Russian Federation. In a chain of reasoning the authors investigated specificity of administrative and legal regulation in the migratory sphere. It is certain that migration policy represents the complete system of political and legal, social, economic, and ideological measures for regulation of migratory processes which are moderated by the federal legislation. In conclusion, the migration policy, which transforms under the influence of the bipolar and hardly predicted circumstances, needs improvement.

PSYCHOLOGY

Vasylyev Y.V., Kanevskiy V.I. Goal orientation and self-development of personality

The article considers issues of the individual goal orientation and offers a methodology of its research. The development of the space-time continuum of situations made it possible to identify four types of the future, present and past situations. The past time is divided into 2 types: actual (acquired) and deep (generic memory). Particular emphasis is placed on the features of the remoteness of goals, which is divided into 3 types: close, medium and long-range goals. The close goals are related to the situations of the past, which characterize the biological level of the individual and the egocentric position. The medium goals are related to the rational position, and the long-range goals to the altruistic position. Self-development processes are also established as self-determination, self-realization, self-improvement and self-actualization. The article focuses on future situations where emphasis is placed on long-range goals corresponding to the altruistic position of the individual.

THEOLOGY

Christensen C.S. Atenism – the birth of monotheistic religions in Ancient Egypt around 1350 BC? Akhenaten, Moses, the Sun and the Story of Sinuhe

For more than 75 years, scientists and historians have been working on a theory (of some researchers called a conspiracy theory) that an Egyptian pharaoh invented God more than 3,300 years ago. If the theory would hold water, it could question the foundations of several world religions. Even today in 2018. This article will focus on Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV), his religion Atenism and his motive for the first documented implementation of a monotheistic religion in the world. 1) Was it a political strategy to adopt Aton as the supreme God? 2) Did it influence or even invent the Hebrew Religion? 3) Was it a spiritual vision? 4) Was it to outstrip the powers of the priests of Amon? or 5) Was it close encounters of the fourth degree with aliens from the universe? In addition, the relations between the Hebrew religions, here especially Moses, and the Atenism is of great importance to the analysis and all considerations lead to a possible answer of the question: was it the birth of monotheistic religions in this period of Ancient Egypt’s history?

Karikov S.A. Saxon evangelical ordinances of the Early Modern Age as the instrument of the Lutheran confessionalization

The article considers the problem of the social disciplining as a component of the Lutheran confessionalization. It analyses the Saxon evangelical ordinances of the confessional age. The main directions of power’s control over the patrials are defined. The conclusion proves an important role of the evangelical ordinances in the formation of territorial statehood of the Electorate of Saxony.

Geletjuk M.V. Evangelization and catechization as important components of the pastoral ministry in the 21st century

The article reveals the role of the Orthodox priest in today’s conditions as well as the main components of the pastoral ministry, evangelization and catechization. The author characterises pastor’s activities and aspects of his ministry in the 21st century. The main problems in the introduction of catechetical ministry of the modern priest are exposed with the help of quotations from the Holy Books and the works of the holy fathers.

PHILOLOGY

Haydanka D.V. Linguo-cognitive construction of aggregated compound nonce words’ meaning in the dramedy “sex and the city”

Since lexical creativity relies not merely on artistic and aesthetic principles, but rather on complex cognitive processes, the article highlights cognitive nature of nonce formation as an integral component of a complex unity, being metacontext, cognition, language and speech. The interpretation of nonce words is based on the shared knowledge phenomenon that is tangency points of interlocutors’ sociocultural background knowledge and sets of their associations and values. In order to reveal the nonce compounds’ informational load the author suggests to employ the following method: cognitive procedure → cognitive operation → cognitive mechanism that enabled to the model of linguo-cognitive meaning construction of the relevant compound nonce words.

Myshak O.O. Greco-Latin prefixes in the English biotechnological terminology

The article considers the English terminology of the biotechnological sublanguage which feature is availability of a large number of terms formed by the prefixes of the Greek and Latin origin. The author substantiates the relevance of the topic. The author investigates the prefix way of word formation of the English terms in the professional language of biotechnology, analyses the prefixes of the Greek and Latin origin, their influence on the formation of English biotechnological terms and the most productive international terminological word components, which are included into the structure of compound words of the English biotechnological terminology.

Kruglyak E.E. Phraseological calquing as a result of language contact (on the example of Quebec political discourse)

The contact of French and English languages that began in the 18th century in Canada led to the appearance of the Quebec version of French. Being formed in isolation from the French-speaking world the French language of Quebec underwent changes at all levels, especially at lexical one. The influence of English led to the appearance of borrowing and calquing in Quebec French. The article considers the question of appearance and functioning of phraseological calques in Quebec French. With the help of comparative analysis the author determines the differences in reference to the classical French language, and also presents various classifications of phraseological units distinguished in the given linguistic area and political discourse.

Giemza L. “Those who lost” by Zbigniew Herbert as the rescuing gesture of irony

The article is a typical analysis of Zbigniew Herbert's poem “Those who lost”. The composition of the poem is marked by the title phrase, which asks who lost and what was lost. The protagonists are the Indigenous Americans, who abandoned their tradition, "rejected the history." They perform professions that are foreign to them such as appearing in films and selling devotional articles. However, we come to the conclusion that those who "lie in the tomb next to the faithful stones" avoided the sad fate. Paradoxically, although they met their deaths, they avoided annihilation.

PHILOSOPHY

Bezrukov A.N. Manifestation and specification of cultural identity signs in the creative heritage of Dmitry Merezhkovsky

The article describes the creative heritage of Dmitry Merezhkovsky through the lens of identifying and functioning of cultural signs. The relevance of the proposed topic is related to the fact that the semantic limit of the literary text lies precisely in the mosaic composition of aesthetic codes and mental models that are deliberately manifested by Merezhkovsky. The material of the article can be used for further specification and evaluation of the author’s philosophical prose. In conclusion, it is necessary to perceive the works by Dmitry Merezhkovsky as a new breakthrough to the culture, religion, and philosophy, to eternity and existence, to the mind of the reader. The Merezhkovsky’s philosophical prose excites and extends the conceivable idea of the form of human existence.

Lapinya K.I. Human imperfect: Dziga Vertov’s cinema

The article attempts to disclose and develop the method of Kino-Eye by Dziga Vertov. The method of Kino-Eye does not deny but rather substantiates the fundamental importance of figurative perception in art. This article reviews the question of correlation of the notions “figurative perception” and “experienced perception” to the problem of audio-visual from the perspective of the mimesis. Particular attention is paid to the role of synchronous sound in connection with the definition of method Kino-Eye. The author draws attention to the possibility of synchronous sound preserving the meaning of asynchronous sound.

Anikin D.A. Holiday as element of cultural memory of migration community

Identifying the difference between social and political holidays the article considers the holiday as the integral element of cultural memory. The author specifies that political privatization of a holiday is shown in creation of the new calendar of the memorable events promoting creation and fixing the collective identity. Identification function of a holiday gets a special role in the conditions of migration community. The mythologization of the past leads to emergence of various symbolical dates and the practices of reminiscence of the lost Homeland.