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Studia Humanitatis - электронный научный журнал


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"Studia Humanitatis". No 4, 2017
redactor_st_hum wrote in st_hum_ru

Publishing Date: 2018-01-25

HISTORY

Pulkin M.V. The phenomenon of alcoholism in the 19th and early 20th centuries: problems of comprehension (on materials of the European North of Russia)

The article reviews the main problems of the distribution of alcoholism and its impact on everyday life in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The dominant trend in the transformation of the role of alcohol in the existence of the society and the individual was the gradual introduction of alcohol into everyday life. The sacred role of absorbing liquids gradually receded into the background and later it was completely lost. The impact of urbanization as well as the spread of urban norms of behavior in rural areas led to a significant acceleration of this process.

Zagorodnyuk N.I., Yunina E.A. Explorer of the North A.A. Dunin-Gorkavich and Tobolsk Museum: the experience of cooperation

The name of the researcher of the North, Alexander Alexandrovich Dunin-Gorkavich, is well known not only in Siberia, but also outside. The authors consider one aspect of his multi-faceted activities, cooperation with the Tobolsk provincial Museum, and the Museum of Tobolsk’s North during the soviet times. On the basis of published and unpublished sources the article reveals the effective contribution of Dunin-Gorkavich as the official of Management of state property, who participated in regional, Russian and international exhibitions. Dunin-Gorkavich also published his scientific works in the “Yearbook of Tobolsk province Museum” and in the journals “Nash Kray” and “Tobolsk Kray”. His experience in cooperation gave an opportunity to realize his creative concept and gain a foothold in scientific society.

Frolov V.V. The image of France in the interpretations of the military periodical publication “The Chronicle of  the War against Japan”

The article examines the image of France which the journalists were forming on the pages of the pro-government periodical “The Chronicle of the War against Japan” at the beginning of the last century. In the framework of this work France appears to be friendly to the Russian Empire as a country that provides moral support but not ready to provide direct financial and military assistance in a military clash with Japan. This research analyses more than 60 issues of the “Chronicle...”. In conclusion, at the beginning of the 20th century in Russia the periodicals had a special role in the informational impact on people's minds.

Ganski U.A. The procedure and conditions for crossing the Polish border by tourists in the 1920-1930s

The article presents the nature and content of customs formalities and procedures applied to tourists arriving to Polish Republic in 1921-1939. The paper describes a set of documents necessary for crossing the border, the norms of duty-free luggage, the liability for violation of established rules and procedures. The text highlights a mechanism of passing the state border by tourists crossing it by road and rail. The article presents a specificity of local residents and tourists being near the border area.

Mamedov Z.I. Prospects of revolutions in the post-war world in the CIA's assessments of 1947-1953

This article analyses the archival documents of the Central Intelligence Agency. The author outlines the main directions by which US intelligence forecasted the prospects for revolutions in the post-war world. The sources of this period make it possible to see which states were considered vulnerable, according to CIA analysts. And in the context of these documents American intelligence was ambiguous to revolutions.

PEDAGOGY

Arifin, Bafadal I., Imron A., Sonhadji A. Cultivating character education through transforming school cultural values

This article discusses the transformation of school cultural values in character education. This study aimed to outline the importance regarding the transformation of school cultural values in the management of: a) curriculum and learning, b) students, c) teachers and school practitioners to realize the character education. This study was a qualitative study which employed a case study design. The participants of this study were the principals, teachers, practitioners, and students of Senior High School in Gorontalo Province of Indonesia. The results of the analysis revealed that the habituation of cultural values such as religious values, honesty, togetherness, modesty, and discipline which have formed a systematic and persistent integration with the management of curriculum, of students, of teachers and practitioners, can accomplish the goals of character education that is creating a generation that is emotionally, socially, and spiritually intelligent.

Gerashchenko I.G., Gerashchenko N.V. Types of historicism in the course of the personality’s formation

This paper considers the main types of historicism in the formation process of human personality. The following historical approaches in the pedagogical theory and practice are allocated: educational evolutionism, pedagogical preformism, psychological genetism, substantial and historical method. The article shows the unity of historical and logical parts in pedagogical process. Substantial historicism in education is analysed from culturological positions. The authors substantiate the idea of the pluralistic approach in different types of historism in education. The paper proves the relevance of richly-historical method in psychology and pedagogics.

POLITOLOGY

Vozniuk E.V. The problems of informational terrorism in African countries

The features of informational terrorism in African countries, especially in SADC countries, are analyzed as well as the ways to combat information terrorism in this region. The major issues related to information terrorism are highlighted, which include data exfiltration, social engineering, insider threats, database breaches as well as poor identity and access management. The essence of Computer Security (Cyber Security) is revealed and its main tasks are characterized: accessibility, integrity, including authenticity and confidentiality. The main threats for cyberspace are distinguished.

Anikin D.A., Linchenko A.A. Choosing memories? Russian political parties as actors of historical policy

The article takes an attempt to analyse the transformation of relations between the state power and political parties in Russia within the framework of implementation the politics of memory. On the basis of the content analysis, the article analyses the specifics of using the images of the past in the activities of the 7th State Duma’s political parties: mentioning the historical periods, frequency of mentions, the function of a statement containing positive, neutral or critical assessments of the past, the theme of the continuity of historical experience of the Russian statehood, ways of implementation of some elements of the politics of memory. To sum up, the stumbling block for the main parliamentary parties becomes the Soviet past concerning which there are only separate points of correlation of all political forces. Today we can talk about the process set by the parties to develop the systematic strategies for comprehending the past. The article also analyses the history of the political parties in the context of the politics of memory.

PSYCHOLOGY

Shilova N.I. The problem of the psychological construct of the personality’s goal orientation

The article considers the concept of the personality’s goal orientation through a certain hierarchy of human goals and motivational content that reflects a personal position. The influence of this position on the achievement of long-term goals is shown mainly in future time situations. The components and forms of expression of the personality’s goal orientation are defined. Four positions are singled out: rationalistic, altruistic, rational and egocentric. The terminological apparatus for qualitative comprehension of the investigated concept is made. A psychological construct of the personality’s target orientation has been developed in the article.

Staniszewska Ż. Verbal communication of spouses as an important constituent of conjugal and family well-being

The article discusses the psychological aspects of conjugal communion. Special emphasis is placed on verbal communication partners. The author observes the conditions of quality of communication, characteristics and basic requirements to the verbal process. The article also analyses communicative problems and the ways to overcome them.

Staniszewski M. The analysis of emotional stress group psychotherapy’s effectiveness exemplified by patients suffering from interpersonal dependencies

The article suggests a short comparative analysis of the effectiveness of emotionally stressful group psychotherapy. The study was conducted on the basis of four main concepts of this type of therapy. Our own studies of the effectiveness of emotionally stressful group psychotherapy in the treatment of interpersonal dependency or coaddiction are also presented. The text provides examples of positive changes that are observed for patients as a result of application of emotionally stressful group psychotherapy.

THEOLOGY

Vostrikov P.V. Devereux Jarratt’s spiritual search: an example of autobiography in colonial and revolutionary Virginia

This article is about the life story of Devereux Jarratt (1733-1801), an Anglican clergyman from colonial and revolutionary Virginia. His autobiography reflects the colonists’ views on many features of social and cultural life. The progress of his life was quite unusual for that period as he was able to overcome social barriers separating simple yeomen from the ruling elite, and he became a man of book culture. Jarratt was an enthusiastic preacher in the times of Great Awakening (1740-1790), a protestant of revival movement; in his writings he preserved memories of many important events and tendencies in the state of Anglican Church as well as activities of Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists.

Borovik J.V. Dialogue, cooperation and confrontation in the religious societies of the Russian province of the early 20th century (based on experience of the 1st All-Russian Congress: ‘Chasovennoe Soglasiye’)

The article analyses materials of the first and only All-Russian Congress of ‘Chasovennye’ Old Believers held in Yekaterinburg in 1911. These materials were little known to specialists. The organization and discussions showed the presence of at least three branches among ‘Chasovennoe soglasiye’ as the largest Old Believers denomination in the Urals and Siberia: conservative, moderate and loyal. Their representatives came to agreement about the rules of religious practices, but disagreed in understanding of ‘openness’ and permissible interaction with the authorities, other denominations and loyalists in their societies. The purpose of the work is to show the heterogeneity of views and interests of urban, factory and rural Old Believer societies, depending on socio-cultural factors.

Osadczy W. Does the end justify the means? Blessed Bishop Hryhoriy Khomyshyn about Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky’s proceedings in the religious and national fields

In the first half of the 20th century the Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky and the Blessed Bishop Hryhoriy Khomyshyn represented two ways of the development of the Uniate Church in Galicia, and later in Western Lesser Poland. The Metropolitan Archbishop from Lvov was obsessed with the idea to impose Catholicism in Russia. To achieve this he was ready to take the most desperate steps – to merge the Uniate tradition with the Orthodox tradition, to reconcile with different political forces, which was recorded in his letter to the Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, Hitler, and Stalin. In order to get more support from the Ukrainian people, he completely ignored the spread of outrageous nationalism. Such position was strongly criticized by Hryhoriy Khomyshyn, the Bishop of Stanyslaviv, whose main purpose was to preserve the original Uniate rituals reflecting the integral unity with the Western Latin civilization. Being devoted to his beliefs, Greek Catholic Archbishop mercilessly condemned nationalism and de-Christian social life of the Ukrainian Uniate community. Those problems are the focus of attention of the book “Two Kingdoms” by Bishop Hryhoriy Khomyshyn, published in Ukrainian in 2016, translated into Polish in 2017.

Christensen C.S. Ethnic Religion in nowadays Europe: renaissance of the historical pagan beliefs or Political Paganism? Exemplified by the Asatru in Denmark and the Mari Native Religion in Russia

The article deals with the history and the problems of ethnic religions in nowadays Europe. Based on a definition and discussion of Paganism and Neopaganism, and a thereby following definition and discussion of differences between ethnic religion and monotheistic religion, the article tries to get the answer as to whether ethnic religion, nowadays, is a Political Paganism, a renaissance of historical pagan beliefs or a mixture. To answer the question, the problem of the article will be exemplified by an analysis of two types of paganism in contemporary Europe: the Asatru in Denmark and the Mari Native Religion in Russia. Revived in the 1970s, the Asatru is a rather new phenomenon as well in Denmark as in other countries of the world. On 15 November 1997 the Forn Siðr association, the Asatru and Vanatru Association in Denmark, was established, in 2003 recognized, and registered as an official religion in Denmark. Whereas the Mari Native Religion, a religion practiced by the Mari people in a Russian region of Mari El Republic, 800 kilometres east of Moscow, can lead its roots several thousand years back.

Priest Pavel Bochkov. A short review of non-canonical Orthodox jurisdiction in Tula Metropolia

The article reviews non-canonical organizations, i.e. community of believers and clerics included into non-canonical Orthodox jurisdiction in force on territory of canonical territory of Tula Metropolia of Russian Orthodox Church. Despite the abhorrence of the canonical Church structure, these organisations brought into the fold a lot of followers and expand the schism. Almost all of the factious groups described herein remain isolated from the canon and change their nationality from time to time.

PHILOLOGY

Litvinova T.A., Litvinova O.A. Linguistic parameters of Russian texts by suicides and persons with a high risk of self-destructive behaviour

The problem of identifying the features of speech (both oral and written) of persons in different mental states and constructing mathematical models for classifying texts depending on the author's mental state is one of the topical and actively developed problems of modern computer and psychiatric linguistics. Most of these studies are based on the material of the English language. The work presents a review of the research devoted to the analysis of written texts of persons who commit suicide as well as persons with a high risk of self-destructive behaviour, with special attention paid to work done on the material of the Russian language. Prospects for further research are also outlined.

Bezrukov A.N., Salikaeva D.E. Time-eternity as the main concept of Marina Tsvetaeva’s style

The article presents the analysis of the lyric poetry by M. Tsvetaeva. The presence of the concept ‘time-eternity’ in her work is a feature of the author's individual style. Marina Tsvetaeva has a unique ability, i.e. mastery of a language that extends the semantic potential of the work. This concept forms the reality, focuses on the poetic aesthetics and deep personal experience. The essence of the analysis is to show how the concept enables fate of the whole. More attention is paid on a series of texts that merge the concept ‘time-eternity’ into some point. The article focuses on the peculiarity of Marina Tsvetaeva’s style. The analysis of her style and language gave an opportunity to see a variety of elements combined in a single art construct. In conclusion, her individual style of writing Tsvetaeva integrates into a particular concept on phonetic, lexical, and syntactic levels.

Balalaieva O.Y., Vakulyk I.I. Perception of ancient motifs in the works of Ukrainian neoclassicists

The article analyses the specifics of the perception of ancient motifs and images in the literary heritage of Ukrainian neoclassicists of the early 20th century, M. Zerov and M. Rylsky in particular. The poetry of Neo-Classicism representatives is considered in cultural and literary aspects. The article proves that in spite of the common for neoclassicists attraction to kalokagathia as an aesthetic ideal of an ancient culture, which included the harmony of senses of a rational sphere, physical and spiritual roots, high culture of thinking and the discipline of poetic speech, the aesthetic platform of Zerov and Rylsky does not come down to the principles of “pure classicism”, the interpretation of classical forms and principles as universal and unchanging norms.

Drozdova M.S. Parks and gardens in poetic reminiscences used to deliver philosophic ideas

The paper focuses on analyzing the image of parks and gardens that helps to deliver philosophic ideas in fiction. The research bases on the novel “The French Lieutenant’s Woman” by John Fowles. The literary hermeneutics and reception-aesthetics methods are used. The paper deals with the reminiscences from Alfred Tennyson’s and Thomas Hardy’s poetry. The author draws a conclusion about their meaning for understanding the sense of the novel and John Fowles’s philosophic ideas as a whole.

PHILOSOPHY

Brodetskyi O.Y. The social and value vectors of religiosity in the ideas of Renaissance humanism and Reformation (“Luter – Erasmus” alternative)

The article contains the consideration of the socio-ethical guidelines of the worldview of the Reformation movement’s founder Martin Luther and the Dutch philosopher-humanist Erasmus of Rotterdam. The author explores the value connotations of the ideas of these personalities and their correlation with contemporary realities of the religious life in post-Soviet societies. The Luther and Erasmus’s views are correlated with the mechanisms for substantiating of the values of interconfessional dialogue, tolerance, cultural openness of believers and their readiness for solidarity in socially and morally meaningful activities with adherents of alternative beliefs. The study is realized at the disciplinary crossing of religious studies, ethics, the history of world philosophy and the history of religious doctrines.

Nikolsky E.V. Glamour in the system of aesthetic categories. Part III. Glamour and postmodernism: the typological convergence

The article for the first time in the Russian Humanities considers the phenomenon of glamour through the prism of universal aesthetic categories. The essence of the conception is to explore the phenomenon of glamour not in the sphere of its existence, but to perform global ontological phenomena to which its genesis leads. Following the methodology of Alexander Baumgarten the author of the article consistently compares glamour to aesthetic categories. In the third part of the research there continues the comprehension of the phenomenon of modern glamour from philosophical positions. This time glamour relates to postmodernism as the matrix of modern culture.

Rusko N.M. Spiritual culture crisis in modern society

The article researches the concept of spirituality as a holistic phenomenon, characterises the current state of spirituality in Ukraine and reveal the basic ways of forming spiritual culture with the help of philosophical, cultural, theological, linguistic, pedagogical, and psychological approaches. Moreover, the crisis in the today’s spiritual culture is analysed, and the determinants of the negative processes in the modern society are examined. Therefore, we can state that education remains a priority area in the spiritual and cultural development of the society. In the current phase of state construction, the main educational objective is the development of the spiritual culture of personality.

Belyaev E.V., Linchenko A.A., Savyshkina A.V. Between the past and the future: the values of generations in modern Russia

The article reviews the problems of transformation of generations’ values in modern Russia. It analyses dynamics of intergenerational values in the context of everyday practices of work, life and leisure. On the basis of the value aspects of these practices, the study of the values of representatives of the business community, the intellectuals and the working class in several age groups is undertaken. The authors substantiate the important role of historical memory as a medium of translation and transformation of the generations’ values. The findings of the regional study conducted in Lipetsk are compared with all-Russian studies. The authors prove the idea of the lack of a clearly expressed conflict of intergenerational values in modern Russia and also confirm the thesis of the relative homogeneity of the intergenerational values’ space. The specifics of transformation of intergenerational values among representatives of the business community, the intellectuals and the working class are revealed.


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