Publishing Date: 2021-07-25
The article examines the main patterns of the formation of the property of parish churches over a long historical period. It was revealed that the main sources for the creation of the complex of the property of the temple were donations from the parishioners associated with various but most often tragic life circumstances. Over time a representative of the merchant class began to play a significant role in the formation of church property. In the middle of the 19th century, while maintaining the previous order of replenishment of church property, church guardianship performed an essential role in solving the material problems of parish churches.
Referring Russian dream on Constantinople without Ottoman rule, the author analyses attempts of Catherine II to implement the “Greek project” based on two cultural motives: the Orthodox “brotherhood” of Greeks and Russians and the vision of Greece as the cradle of European culture. The paper describes military and ideological attempts of Catherine II to establish Greece as an independent state and shows their political and cultural consequences for Russia and Europe.
The author examines the role of the Balkans in Russian foreign policy. Using the method of historical analysis the author comes to the conclusion that the interest of the Russian state in the region develops cyclically. The article examines the attempts to dismember the Ottoman Empire and the reasons for the sharp reduction of influence in the region of the USSR, both in the pre-war and post-war period. The author notes the absence of the countries of the Balkan region in the policy documents, which emphasizes Russia’s disinterest in the region. The conclusion of the article gives the forecast for the further development of relations between the Russian Federation and the Balkan states, and it also presents the long-term trend of reducing Russia’s influence, which began in 1878 (the end of the Russo-Turkish war and the Berlin Congress) in the region, as well as the strengthening of the role of Western states especially the United States.
A more improbable object of imperial rivalry than Wrangel Island could scarcely be found in the world. For decades in the 1800s and the early 1900s Wrangel Island became the subject of controversy among Russia, USA, Canada and Great Britain. Having about 140 km long from East to West and 80 km wide from North to South this cold, barren and inhospitable island lies in Arctic Ocean. A shifting expanse of ice surrounds the island and isolates it from the Russian mainland around 200 km away from the Siberian Northeast coast. Even though arctic storms batter it shores and chill wind sweep off the ice, stirring the defence fog that constantly blankets the bleak landscapes Wrangel Island has its own dramatic and interesting history. This article analyses and explains how Western world viewed life in the Polar Regions in the 1800s and 1900s.
The review is dedicated to the book “The Death march of the Russian Protective Corps” by A.A. Samtsevich. This is the first monographic study dedicated to the Russian Corps, a White émigré military unit operating in the Balkans during the World War II. The review analyses the features of this research and the prospects for further study of the topic.
This article examines the process of the emergence and development of cooperatives, created under the Central Committee of the Komsomol during the Perestroika period, based on the materials of the Smolensk region. The purpose of the work is to show the introduction workers to new trends and the commercialization of the Komsomol organization. In the course of the study, the authors used materials from the periodical press, and also included previously unpublished materials from local archives into scientific circulation.
PEDAGOGY and TEACHING METHODOLOGY
In recent years, the problem of pedagogical education and school teachers training in Poland is often being the subject of discussion. Despite the fact that new legal acts are regularly issued, this question remains relevant and unresolved. The article analyses the Decree of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of Poland dated July 25, 2019. This Decree regulates the basics of training future teachers at Polish universities. The author is primarily interested in the modern image of a Polish language and literature teacher, as well as professional competencies and requirements to young teachers.
The study examines features of academic achievements’ monitoring organization as a tool of the internal quality control system in higher education. The author defines the role and types of this monitoring. It is noted that one of its components is to determine the level of students’ satisfaction with the quality of educational services provided to them. The author concludes that the directions defined in the study will allow creation of academic environment where improving the quality of the educational process will become the main topic of professional development and will provide the necessary publicity and transparency.
POLITOLOGY and LAW
The role of the Regional Representative Council (DPD) of the Republic of Indonesia in the 1945 Constitution is regulated by articles 22C and 22D of chapter VIIA. Paragraph (3) of article 22D contains the provision that the Regional Representative Council can carry out supervision in the fields of state revenues and expenditures, taxes, education and religion and submit the results of its supervision to the People’s Representative Council (DPR) for consideration. Thus, the powers of the DPD are significantly limited compared to the DPR. This paper is a normative legal research, which examines the provisions of articles in the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia, related to the role of the Regional Representatives Council in the government system.
The purpose of this article is to comprehensively present a “printed icon”, such characteristic phenomenon of Russia at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The article indicates origins and typical features of this phenomenon, analyses the main stages of its development. The author tries to point out the reasons for the special popularity of “printed icons”. The article also describes the criticism of the Russian intelligentsia against “printed icons”.
Biblical references and a grim touch of war experiences pervade Anna Pogonowska’s poetry. The religious character of her work is primarily reminiscent of the New Testament. However, the presence of religion in the poetess’ works is rather alluding and ambiguous. Pogonowska often reflects on the progress of civilization by combining biblical themes and problems of modernity into her poetic imagery.
The paper explores two perspectives of humanity’s role on Earth. The author introduces the concept of biocentrism and determines why mankind’s uniqueness charges it with the responsibility of protecting the environment, not only existing in it. The human being possesses the ability to establish moral norms, and thus should regard the environment as having the highest value, in spite of modern society’s ever-increasing needs.
Church historians A.S. Melkov and M.V. Shkarovsky have recreated an amazing and dramatic history of the Church of the Nativity on Peski, which was destroyed in the 30s of the 20th century in St. Petersburg and has only just been revived. On the pages of the book the authors describe in detail the history of the church construction in the 18th century, the creation of its interiors and their decoration with temple restorations in the 19th century, as well as the stages of the revival of the church nowadays. The book tells about charitable projects that were successfully implemented with the participation of clergy and parishioners of the church in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries. This is the history of a Brotherhood shelter and a Parish school, a Community of Sisters of Mercy and a Church Poorhouse organization, as well as other good works of the priesthood and parishioners in ministering to the Lord and neighbours. The book contains detailed biographies of the parish clergy, who suffered for the Faith in Christ during the Bolshevik persecution of the Church. A special place in the monograph is given to the life history and pastoral works of Priest Alexander Gumilevsky, known as the founder of parish charity in St. Petersburg.
The article studies the feature category in the terminology of biotechnology sphere and the identification of a set of tools in English that serve to express this category. The category under study is widely used in biotechnological terminology, since it is one of the basic categories that serve to classify concepts in the field of biotechnology. The author characterizes the main means of the feature category verbalization and their structural properties in the studied term system. It has been established that in the linguistic level various means are involved in the expression of the category “attribute”: special attributive vocabulary; specialized morphemes; terms created on the basis of metaphorical transfer and syntactic constructions.
The article analyses satirical and humorous ideas in the French language covering current environmental issues. Special attention is paid to the description of environmental problems, and the comic as one of the ways to solve them. The authors consider the term “comic”, its types and techniques. The article analyses verbal and nonverbal techniques of creating the comic in satirical articles of the magazine “Charlie Hebdo” and caricatures.
The article studies the image of King Arthur in modern cinema on the feature film “King Arthur: Legend of the Sword” (2017) directed by Guy Ritchie. Verbal and non-verbal parts of the image were studied by authors in the current paper. In order to study the verbal part analysis of word definition, contextual analysis, and stylistics analysis were chosen. The non-verbal part was interpreted by consulting handbooks on non-verbal communication. Afterwards comparative analysis of the generalised image of King Arthur and his cinema image was preceded. The authors concluded that the cinema character comprises a set of components that correspond to the components of the literary character of King Arthur.
The purpose of the article is to understand what is the “diabolic difference” between a novel in verse and a novel in prose. The author highlights the components: plot, plastic of transitions, rhythm and role of details, “contradictions”, compositional rhythm. They are actively (and sometimes involuntarily) used by prose writers. The form of these components taken under Pushkin’s pen in “Eugene Onegin” is studied.
The intensive development of futurism in Vladivostok in late 1919 and early 1920s is due to the activities of a number of organizers of artistic, literary and intellectual life, who dwelled that time in the city – Nikolai Aseev, Alexander Bogdanov, David Burliuk, Sergei Tretyakov. As a result, an institutional order for the creation of new art was established in the city, so that futuristic poetics were perceived by authors who were initially far from it. The author considers a futuristic episode in the work of the poetess Varvara Statieva and proves the key influence on her poetics perceived through the poetry of David Burliuk and Sergei Tretyakov on the images and worldview of Arthur Rimbaud. The article reconstructs her implicit dialogue with Sergei Tretyakov, questioning the prerequisites for her transition to the avant-garde from a more general modernist aesthetics, as special experience of the relationship between earthly and heavenly poetic images.
The paper contains the memories of the Great Patriotic War recorded during the interview which reflect both tragic and comic moments, as well as resourcefulness, childlike spontaneity, and the sincerity of experiences. These texts are recorded both from the participants of the war and from their descendants within the framework of family traditions. The witnesses of the war are people of different ages and social status, who lived in rural and urban areas (mainly residents of villages), some shared the most vivid childhood memories, others have worked in the rear, or fought at the front. Submitted texts provide an opportunity to see the perception of the war by modern youth living in peacetime, broadcasting the memories of their relatives, sometimes with their own assessment of that time or those events.
The article considers the myth about aliens in the structure of modern myths participating in the mythologization of human consciousness. Author’s attention is drawn to what kind of simulacra this myth is realized and what are the tools for its introduction into consciousness. The analysis showed that myths about aliens occupy a stable position in the system of modern myths. They are implemented in a multitude of well-developed simulacra, for the approval of which in the public consciousness numerous mechanisms are used, among which fakes play a special role. The great importance of the media, including new media, for the spread of the myth of the aliens is noted. It was revealed that the myth about aliens has been intensively implanted in the minds of Russians over the past few decades. The authorship of this myth and the addressee, in whose interests it is being implemented, is difficult to establish. The author suggests that we are talking about mythologization as a way to fill the religious and ideological vacuum in the consciousness of a modern person. It is also established that this myth may have hidden, unconscious addressees and motivators, who benefit from weakening a modern person’s critical vision of the world, making it the psyche is more malleable for all kinds of suggestions.